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Pirmojo Pasaulinio karo tema 1914-1918

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  • #46
    BBC straipsnis apie vietas, kuriose 1916 m. vyko Verdeno mūšis:

    The nine ghost villages of northern France, 2018.11.22

    During World War One, French and German soldiers completely razed nine villages during the Battle of Verdun, the longest and one of the fiercest artillery battles of the war. Raging for around 300 days and nights in 1916, troops used giant guns – including Germany’s infamous ‘Big Berthas’ – to rain a never-ending barrage of shells over the combat zone. The shells contaminated the earth so badly with lead, arsenic and lethal poison gas, France determined that most of the villages couldn’t be rebuilt. Casualties of war, it was said they had ‘died for France’.
    Over the last 100 years, only one of the destroyed villages has been reconstructed. Another two have been partially rebuilt, but the remaining six, including Fleury-devant-Douaumont, sit uninhabited within France’s Zone Rouge, or Red Zone.
    After the war ended in 1918, the French government deemed 1,200 sq km of non-contiguous land near Verdun too dangerous to inhabit and too costly to rehabilitate. Although no-one lives in any part of the Red Zone and much of it is still considered too dangerous for visitors, French law recognises the destroyed villages as municipalities – there are even designated mayors who receive government money to receive guests and preserve the memory of what’s left. Besides the villages, which are open year-round and deemed safe to visit, a few museums and other sites have been erected to memorialise the soldiers who lost their lives for their countries.
    Over the course of a century, the trees have absorbed enough of the contaminants from the toxic earth to allow other species of flora to thrive, and the land is teeming with life. In effect, the bucolic countryside of the Red Zone is turning into a Green Zone, although with arsenic levels in the soil up to 35,000 times higher than normal, the forest is nowhere near pristine.
    Mūšių vietose buvo pilnai sunaikinti 9 kaimai (6 neatstatyti iki šiol), o dirvos užterštumas arsenu net dabar vietomis 35000 kartų viršija normą.
    Last edited by Danas; 1st December 2018, 17:18.


    • #47
      Kas Europą supažindino su džiazu? Spėju tik viena iš versijų, bet vis viena įdomu:

      Harlem Hellfighters: The black soldiers who brought jazz to Europe, 2019.01.03